JIRA Software: Anonymous access
Can anonymous access JIRA Software?
For JIRA Software:
In JIRA Software, you definitely need to have a license to identify your clients. Here, a named user is anyone who can log into the system, or has the 'JIRA Users' global permission. Unlimited anonymous users are allowed on all licenses which can also be found on the JIRA licensing page. Note that anonymous JIRA users can view, browse and create issues, but they cannot be identified. To identify a user in any way, they will need to have a JIRA Software license.
You can also provide a granular control over what users do by assigning a single username/password for each business to track who/what/where.
If you want JIRA to work in the way of the service desk where a customer submits a ticket/issue and can follow the progress and comment, then JIRA Service Desk is the better option. JIRA Service Desk allows you to have an unlimited amount of identifiable users and only the people working on the tickets, (a.k.a. "agents”) will count towards a license.
You can enable anonymous access (also known as public access) to your Confluence site by granting the 'Use Confluence' permission to 'anonymous' users. An 'anonymous' user is someone who has not logged into the Confluence site. You can give anonymous access to the whole site or specific pages/spaces.
For JIRA Service Desk:
If you prefer not to pay for the client's access to your JIRA instance, we would recommend using JIRA Service Desk in collaboration with JIRA. JIRA Software and JIRA Core users can be given Browse and Comment permissions on JIRA Service Desk (JSD) projects, so they can look, be @mentioned, and add internal comments, without adding to your agent price.
If an issue comes into JIRA Service Desk that needs to be worked, there is a Create a Linked Issue option that lets the agent quickly create an issue and put it into a JIRA project, where those users can work on it in their own workflow. There is an Automation Rule that will trigger alerts to the agent when the linked dev issue is updated, so the agent can stay informed on progress if need be, for customer communication. This keeps an issue with the agent (useful for reporting purposes and SLA tracking), and lets the developers work in their familiar project and workflow, all while keeping everyone informed.
Here is a good resource to understand the different roles with the JIRA Applications Overview.